Rhizotomy is a procedure in which the physician may use heat or cold to intentionally damage the ability of a problematic nerve to telegraph pain signals to the brain. While pain signals serve to warn us about danger or injury, sometimes a nerve can end up in a "stuck" position, sending a continuous pain signal to the brain.
"Neuroablation" is another word used to describe the surgical procedure to purposely inhibit the nerve's ability to transmit a pain signal. During the procedure, the spine surgeon can destroy the problematic nerve by cutting it or by using extreme heat or cold. This intentional "short circuit" can be temporary or permanent, depending upon the procedure.
Trying to mask this signal with drugs can have damaging long-term implications. Drugs can have dangerous side effects to internal organs. By using rhizotomy, the pain signal is turned off at the source.